THE 100 SERIES.  In January 1998, the 100 series Land Cruiser was introduced to replace the 8-year-old 80 series. The 100 series was previewed in October 1997 as the "Grand Cruiser" at the 32nd Tokyo Motor Show. Development began in 1992, with final design being frozen in mid-1994. There are two distinct versions of the 100-series, the 100 and the 105. The two versions look very similar, but there are significant differences under the bodywork. Despite these differences and official model names, both the 100 and 105 are collectively known as the 100 series. The 105 carried over the majority of its chassis and powertrain from the 80-series with coil suspended solid axles front and rear, and straight-6 petrol and diesel engines. These models were only sold in African, Australian, Russian, and South American markets. The 100 models were fitted with a slightly wider chassis, independent front suspension (IFS) and two new engines. The change to IFS was a first for a Land Cruiser, and was made (in combination with rack-and-pinion steering) to improve on-road handling. However it also limited the vehicle’s off-road capability and durability, hence the decision to offer the solid axle 105 models alongside the IFS 100 models in some markets.  Although the 100 and 105 bodies are identical, there are some exterior visual indications between the two. The most obvious is the front end of the vehicle often appearing lower than the rear on the 100 models, due to the IFS. The other indicator is the design of the wheels. The 100 models have almost flat wheel designs, while the 105 models have dished wheels. This difference allows the two versions to retain similar wheel tracks, even though the 100 has a significantly wider axle track to allow for the IFS system. The introduction of a V8 engine was also a first for a Land Cruiser, and was specifically intended to improve sales in the North-American market, where it was the only engine available. In Australia, the 100 V8 was initially only available in the range-topping GXV model, while entry and mid-range models were the 105 powered by the 1FZ-FE I6 petrol, or 1HZ diesel engines. The new 1HD-FTE turbo-diesel 100 was added to the Australian range in October 2000 after being available in Europe and the UK since launch in 1998. The 4WD media in Australia were critical of Toyota’s decision to offer the acclaimed 1HD-FTE engine only in combination with IFS. Australian 4WD Monthly magazine said "We will never forgive Toyota for going independent at the front with the mighty 4.2 turbo-diesel". The 100 series formed the basis for the Lexus LX 470, which was also sold in Japan as the Toyota Cygnus. The 100 series was called the Toyota Land Cruiser Amazon in the UK and Ireland from 1998 to 2007. In 2000, Toyota celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Land Cruiser with commemorative models offered in several countries. Total global production to date was 3.72 million vehicles. The 100 series remained in production until late 2007, with several minor facelifts such as headlights, taillights, front grill, rear spoiler and specification changes introduced over the years.



Production:  1989–2008
​Assembly:  Toyota City, Japan (ARACO) & Cumana, Venezuela

 Body Style:   4-door wagon

Engine:  

  1. 4.0 L 3F-E I6
  2. 4.5 L 1FZ-FE I6
  3. 4.2 L 1HZ I6 diesel
  4. 4.2 L 1HD-T I6 turbo diesel

Production:  1980–1990
​Assembly:  Toyota City, Japan (ARACO) & Cumana, Venezuela

Body Style:   4-door station wagon

​​Layout:   Front-engine, four-wheel drive

Engine:   

  1. 4.2 L 2F I6 (FJ60)
  2. 4.0 L 3F I6 (FJ62)
  3. 4.0 L 3F-E I6 (FJ62 from 1988)
  4. 3.4 L 3B I4 diesel (BJ60)
  5. 4.0 L 2H I6 diesel (HJ60)
  6. 4.0 L 12H-T I6 turbo diesel (HJ61)

 

THE 55 SERIES. The Land Cruiser 55 was produced from 1967 to 1980. Toyota refers to the FJ55G and FJ55V as the first "real" station wagon in the Land Cruiser series, thus marking the beginning of the station wagon branch. It was the first Land Cruiser to have fully enclosed box frame members. Of all the Land Cruiser wagons sold in the U.S., including the FJ45, it is the only one to not have hatch and tailgate in the rear, but rather a tailgate only with an electrically operated window that can be retracted into the tailgate. Production of the FJ55 began in 1967. The FJ55 was a 4-door station wagon version based on the FJ40's Drive-train, replacing the 4-Door FJ45V. It was colloquially known as the "Moose". It has also been referred to as a "pig" or an "iron pig". The FJ55 had a longer wheelbase 2700 mm and was designed to be sold in North America and Australia. January 1975 saw the F engine replaced by the 2F engine. Unusual for Toyota, the model (e.g. FJ55) did not change. The 56 model was only released in Japan, with the 2F engine (January 1975 — July 1980).


Production:  1960–1984
​Assembly:  Toyota City, Japan (ARACO) & Cumana, Venezuela

Body Style:  

  1. 2-door softtop

  2. 2-door hardtop

  3. 2-door pickup truck

  4. 4-door station wagon

​​Layout:   Front-engine, rear-wheel-drive, four-wheel drive

Engine: 

  1. 3.9 L F I6
  2. 4.2 L 2F I6
  3. 3.0 L B diesel I4
  4. 3.2 L 2B diesel I4
  5. 3.4 L 3B diesel I4
  6. 3.6 L H diesel I6
  7. 4.0 L 2H diesel I6 

Toyota  FJ25 Land Cruiser

THE 40 SERIES. The 20 Series was upgraded to the now classic 40 in 1960. Toyota made many production changes by buying new steel presses. Mechanically, the FJ40 was given a new 93 kW (126 PS; 125 hp), 3.9 L F engine and the Land Cruiser finally received low-range gearing, but continued the three speed main gearbox. The Brazilian model was rebadged the Bandeirante and received a Mercedes-Benz-built diesel engine generating 58 kW (79 PS; 78 hp). In 1965 global production surpassed 50,000 vehicles. The Land Cruiser was the best selling Toyota in the United States.

  • 1968 — The 100,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide.

  • 1972 — The 200,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide.

  • 1973 — The 300,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide.

The first diesel Land Cruiser was introduced for export on long wheelbase models with a six-cylinder H engine. In 1974 a four-cylinder 3.0 L B diesel was offered. The introduction of this engine boosted sales in Japan by putting the Land Cruiser in a lower tax compact Freight-car category than its 3.9 L gasoline version. The new B diesel engine was different from the B gasoline engine used in the original BJ. By 1975 the 3.9 L gasoline engine was replaced by a larger, more powerful 4.2 L 2F unit. That same year the FJ55 received front disc brakes and the 3.6 L H diesel engine was optional in some markets in the HJ45. In 1976 The United States version of the FJ40 Land Cruisers received front disc brakes like the FJ55. That same year, The Toyota Land Cruiser Association was founded in California. In 1977 the Irish Army took delivery of the first of 77 FJ45 Land Cruisers. Although fast, reliable and with good off-road performance the type tended to rust excessively in the wet Irish climate. A few which did not succumb to the effects of weather were repainted in gloss olive green and survive as ceremonial gun tractors at military funerals. The first BJ / FJ40 and FJ55 models were officially sold in West Germany, in 1978, with both diesel (BJ40) and petrol engines (FJ40 /55). in ’79 United States version FJ40s were updated with a new wider, square bezel surrounding the headlights, and power steering and cooler were offered in FJ40s for the first time. The diesel engine was also improved, evolving into the 3.2 L 2B but only in Japan. By 1980 the H diesel engine (HJ45) was replaced by the 4.0 L 2H engine (HJ47). Then, in 1981 the Diesel version received front disc brakes and the more powerful 3.4 L 3B engine, and added LWB BJ45 with the 3B. The last FJ40s imported to the U.S. were 1983 models (mid-1982 to mid-1983). It is unknown how many were imported by Toyota, but many guess the number to be only around 300. 1983 FJ40s typically bring a premium for their rarity, though they are not much different from 1982 models (mid-1981 to mid-1982). By 1984 the North American market was limited to Canada with the BJ42, which had a 5-speed (overdrive) transmission that was widely sought. Originally costing around 14,000 CAD.

Production:  1955–1960
​Assembly:  Toyota City, Japan (ARACO)

Body Style:  

  1. 2-door softtop

  2. 2-door hardtop

  1. 2-door pickup truck

  2. 4-door station wagon

​​Layout:   Front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout

Engine: 

  1. 3.4 L B I6

  2. 3.9 L F I6​

The Toyota Land Cruiser is a series of four-wheel drive vehicles produced by the Japanese car maker Toyota. The Land Cruiser series is the longest running series in Toyota history. Production of the first generation Land Cruiser began in 1951 (90 units) as Toyota's version of a Jeep-like vehicle. The Land Cruiser has been produced in convertible, hardtop, station wagon, and utility truck versions. The Land Cruiser's reliability and longevity has led to huge popularity, especially in South Sudan and Australia where it is the best-selling body-on-frame, four-wheel drive vehicle. Toyota also extensively tests the Land Cruiser in the Australian outback — considered to be one of the toughest operating environments in both temperature and terrain.


It all began in 1941, the Imperial Japanese Army occupied the Philippines, where they found an old Bantam Mk II, and promptly brought it to Japan. The Japanese military authorities commanded Toyota to make a similar vehicle but to not model the appearance on the American Jeep. The prototype was called the Model AK and was formally adopted by The Japanese Imperial Army as the Yon-Shiki Kogata Kamotsu-Sha. Later in 1941 the Japanese government asked Toyota to produce a light truck for the Japan military campaign. Toyota developed a ½-ton prototype called the AK10 in 1942. The AK10 was built using reverse-engineering from the Bantam GP. The truck featured an upright front grille, flat front wheel arches that angled down and back like the FJ40, headlights mounted above the wheel arches on either side of the radiator, and a folding windshield.The AK10 used the 2259 cc, 4-cylinder Type C engine from the Toyota Model AE sedan with a three-speed manual transmission and two-speed transfer gearbox connected to it. There is no mechanical relationship between the AK10 and the postwar Toyota "Jeep" BJ. Most of the AK10's were not actively used (unlike the U.S. Jeep) and there are almost no photographs of it in the battlefield.


The beginning of the BJ and FJ Models. In 1950 The Korean War created demand for a military light utility vehicle. The war put a Jeep on Japan's doorstep. The United States government ordered 100 vehicles with the new Willys specs and Toyota was asked to build them. The Toyota "Jeep" BJ prototype was developed in January 1951. This came from the demand for military-type utility vehicles, much like the British Land Rover Series 1 that appeared in 1948. The Jeep BJ was larger than the original U.S. Jeep and more powerful thanks to its Type B 3.4 L six-cylinder OHV Gasoline engine which generated 63 kW (86 PS; 84 hp) at 3600 rpm and 215 N·m (159 lb·ft) torque at 1600 rpm. It had a part-time four-wheel drive system like the Jeep. Unlike the Jeep, however, the Jeep BJ had no low-range transfer case. In July 1951, Toyota's test driver Ichiro Taira drove the next generation of the Jeep BJ prototype up to the sixth stage of Mount Fuji, the first vehicle to climb that high. The test was overseen by the National Police Agency (NPA). Impressed by this feat, the NPA quickly placed an order for 289 of these offroad vehicles, making the Jeep BJ their official patrol car. In 1953 regular production of the "Toyota Jeep BJ" began at Toyota Honsya Plant (Rolling chassis assembly), and body assembly and painting was done at Arakawa Bankin Kogyo KK, later known as ARACO (now an affiliate of Toyota Auto Body Co.). The "Toyota Jeep BJ" Series was introduced alongside the following:

  • BJ-T (Touring),

  • BJ-R (Radio),

  • BJ-J (Cowl-chassis for a fire-engine).

In 1954 The name "Land Cruiser" was created by the technical director Hanji Umehara. "In England we had another competitor — Land Rover. I had to come up with a name for our car that would not sound less dignified than those of our competitors. That is why I decided to call it 'Land Cruiser'," he recalls. The name had already been used on the US Studebaker Land Cruiser car from 1934 to 1954 but this didn't cause any problems. The 93 kW (126 PS; 125 hp), 3.9 L Type F gasoline engine added for the fire-engine chassis. Models are renamed as:

  • BJ-T (Touring),

  • BJ-R (Radio),

  • BJ-J (Cowl-chassis for a fire-engine),

  • FJ-J (Cowl-chassis for a fire-engine).


THE 20 SERIES. The Second generation, 20 Series was introduced in 1955. It was designed to have more civilian appeal than the BJ for export reasons. It also had more stylish bodywork and a better ride thanks to longer four-plate leaf springs which had been adapted from the Toyota Light Truck. It had a more powerful 135 PS (99 kW) 3.9 L six-cylinder Type F gasoline engine, but still only had a three speed gearbox. The interior of the vehicles were made more comfortable by moving the engine 120 mm (4.7 in) forward. The 20 Series still had no low range, but it had synchromesh on the third and fourth gears. By 1957 a 4-door Station Wagon was added as the FJ35V on a 2,650 mm (104.3 in) wheelbase. Land Cruisers were first imported into Australia by B&D Motors as FJ25/28 cab chassis with Australian made bodies. They were the first Japanese cars to be regularly exported to the country and a few were initially used in the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Scheme. In 1958 FJ25 production commenced in Brazil; this being the first Toyota vehicle built outside Japan.


THE 200 SERIES.  In 2002, a 5-year development plan on a successor to the 100-series platform commenced under Sadayoshi Koyari and Tetsuya Tada. By 2004, 10 years after the design selection of its predecessor in 1994, a final production design was settled on for the 2008 J200. Prototype related tests were conducted for over 2 years between 2004 and early 2007. The redesigned Toyota Land Cruiser was introduced in late 2007. Known as the 200 Series, it shares the Lexus LX 570's platform and overall design. The frame was new, derived from the second-generation Tundra but shortened and strengthened by 20 percent. Bigger brake rotors and calipers were added and the front suspension was made heavier duty than the Land Cruiser's first effort at IFS in the 100-series and this underbelly is also protected by skid plates. Also, the roof pillars were redesigned to better protect occupants in a rollover.

The 200 Series encountered some criticism due to its bland body restyling, with some claiming that Toyota has 'overdeveloped' the classic trademarked Land Cruiser identity in its efforts to fit the Land Cruiser into modern 21st century motoring and vehicle design. Nonetheless, the Land Cruiser remains the NATO vehicle of choice and remains a competent off-road vehicle.

The vehicle entered production in September 2007 and was available for sale from September or November, depending on country. It became available in Venezuela for sale early in November under the local nickname of "Roraima" (taken from Mount Roraima). Early reliability has proved to be excellent.

The 200 Series, offered numerous features and upgrades over its predecessor not limited to the cosmetic changes made to the body and interior, including:

  • Smart Entry — A sensor is triggered when the remote is brought near the vehicle, allowing the user to simply touch the door handle to open it.

  • Smart Start — Start/Stop push button for ignition; a key is not required.

  • 4-zone climate control on Sahara models, with outlet vents increased from 18 to 28

  • 10 airbags (VX & Sahara)

  • Stronger and lighter frame

Various driver assist technologies not offered on previous models, including:

  • CRAWL, a four-wheel drive control system that operates like an off-road cruise control, automatically maintaining a low uniform vehicle speed using brakes and throttle

  • Downhill Assist Control

  • Multi-terrain anti-lock braking system (ABS)

  • Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System (KDSS), allows for greater wheel articulation

  • An optional rear-view camera (VX)

  • Leather seats are available in full option (VX)

Engine and transmission improvements include:

  • An all new optional V8 diesel engine, the Toyota VD engine (a twin-turbo version of the engine used in the 70 Series since 2007).

  • Automatic transmission standard across all levels of trim of the 200 Series, five-speed manual transmission is offered only with the 4.0 L GX models (in selected regions). A five-speed automatic gearbox is assigned to the 4.7 L petrol models, while the 4.5 L diesel models receive a six-speed automatic.

In Japan, the Land Cruiser had a minor change in 2009 when it received the 4.6 L V8 1UR-FE engine and the gearbox was replaced with a 6-speed automatic. Although the new 4608 cc 1UR-FE is smaller than the old 4663 cc 2UZ-FE engine, the power has been increased from 212 to 234 kW (288 to 318 PS; 284 to 314 hp), torque increased from 448 to 460 N·m (330 to 339 lb·ft) and fuel consumption improved from 6.6 to 7.1 km/L (19 to 20 mpg-imp; 16 to 17 mpg-US) (Japan 10·15 mode measurement).In the Middle East, the Land Cruiser 200 series was introduced in late 2007 as a 2008 model, for 2008 to 2010 there was three engine choices, 240 hp 4.0 L 1GR-FE petrol, 271 hp 2UZ-FE petrol and 217 hp-232 hp 1VD-FTV 4.5 L turbo diesel. Starting in 2011 the 362 hp 3UR-FE was offered along with the previous engines. For 2012 the 1GR-FE gained dual VVT-i which increased horsepower to 271 hp, the 4.7 L 2UZ-FE was dropped in favor of the new 304 hp 1UR-FE, and the 5.7 L and 4.5 L diesel were unchanged.

In North America, the Land Cruiser 200 series is offered with one trim level and engine, the 5.7 L 3UR-FE V8 petrol engine producing 284 kW (386 PS; 381 hp) and 544 N·m (401 lb·ft) of torque channeled through a six-speed automatic. Towing is rated at 3,700 kg (8,200 lb). Beige or black leather is standard along with a 14 speaker JBL sound system. The only wheel choice is 18 in (460 mm) allowing a lot of sidewall so the vehicle can be driven off-road without modification though a more aggressive tread pattern is advised for deep mud.

For the 2013 model year, Toyota added all previously optional safety and luxury options as standard. The Land Cruiser now gets pushbutton start, HID headlights, a power moonroof, heated front and rear seats, a rear-seat DVD entertainment system, bluetooth, rearview camera with parking sensors, navigation system, HD radio and Entune. Another new feature is the Multi-terrain Select system which helps control wheelspin and brake lockup giving the selectable choices of: Rock, Rock & Dirt, Mogul, Loose Rock, and Mud & Sand. There is no Active Height Control.

In Oceania, the 200 Series is offered in four different levels of trim: GX, GXL, VX, and Sahara.



THE 70 SERIES. In 1984 the 70 Series was introduced as a soft-top, hard-top, FRP top, utility, cab-chassis, and Troop Carrier (inward facing rear seats).The petrol engine was replaced with a 4.0 L 3F engine. The 70 Light had a four-wheel coil spring solid-axle suspension for better ride quality. This lighter duty version of the Land Cruiser had the 22R 2.4 L gasoline engine, 2L and 2L-T (turbo) 2.4 L diesel engines commonly found in the Toyota Hilux. The 70 Light was sold in some markets as the Bundera or the Landcruiser II, later called 70 Prado. The 70 Prado eventually became popular and evolved into the 90. An automatic transmission (A440F) was introduced making it the first four-wheel drive Japanese vehicle with an automatic transmission. New-generation diesel engines were introduced in 1990, including a 3.4 L five-cylinder SOHC naturally aspirated motor (1PZ),and a 4.2 L six-cylinder SOHC naturally aspirated motor (1 HZ). 1993 to 1996, the KZ 3.0 L turbocharged diesel engine replaced the LJ in the 70 series in European markets where this model was known as the KZJ70. In 1993 an advanced 24-valve, 4.5 L six-cylinder petrol engine, 1FZ-FE was introduced. In 1999 Toyota updated the 70 series in several ways. The solid front axle received coil-spring suspension. The rear leaf springs were lengthened for increased ride comfort and wheel travel. The six-bolt wheels were replaced with five-bolt wheels. Several smaller modifications to the drivetrain provided increased durability. The long-wheel-base models received new designations: 78 for the troop carrier, and 79 for the pick-up. In 2002 the HDJ79 is introduced to Australia with the 1HD-FTE 4.2 L six-cylinder 24-valve turbodiesel EFI engine. 2007 Toyota's first turbodiesel V8 engine, the 1VD-FTV was released in some countries for the 70 Series Land Cruiser. Other modifications include the addition of a 4-door medium-wheel-base model (the 76) and an altered front look on all models. In 2012 the addition of the 79 Double Cab pickup, in South Africa (4.2 L Diesel or 4.0 L Petrol) and Australia (4.5 L V8 Diesel). The Sixth and Seventh generations of the Land Cruiser are still being produced and sold in African and Latin American regions. Production in Venezuela ended in 2008. The 70 series is also still marketed in Australia as 4-door wagon, 2-door 'Troop Carrier', 2 door cab-chassis and 4 door cab-chassis.


THE 60 SERIES. The Land Cruiser 60 series was produced from 1980 through 1990 for most markets but the Cumana Plant in Venezuela continued until 1992 for their local market. It is a front engine, four door wagon which can seat five to eight people. Like all Land Cruiser generations, it is well known in the off-road world for its off-road abilities but was somewhat limited by its awkward departure angles. The 60 series was available in the following solid exterior colors: Alpine White, Brown, Desert Beige, Freeborn Red, Royal Blue; and in the following metallic exterior colors: Charcoal Gray, Cognac, Gray-Blue, Rootbeer, Sky Blue, Stardust Silver. While still retaining the rugged off-road characteristics of previous Land Cruisers, the 60 was designed to better compete in the emerging sport utility vehicle market. The 60 was given a variety of comforts like air conditioning, a rear heater and an upgraded interior. The FJ60's "2F" petrol engine was left unchanged from the "40" series while six-cylinder 4.0 L 2H and four-cylinder 3.4 L 3B diesel engines were added to the product line. In 1981 the Land Cruiser sales surpassed 1 million and a high-roof version was introduced. The 60 series was introduced to South Africa when a stock Land Cruiser competed in the Toyota 1000 km Desert Race in the punishing wilds of Botswana. In 1985 the Direct-injection 12H-T turbodiesel engine was introduced. By 1988 the petrol engine was upgraded to a 4.0 L 3F-E EFI engine. The FJ62G VX-Series was introduced allowing the Land Cruiser to be sold in Japan as a passenger vehicle.

Production:  1967–1980
​Assembly:  Toyota City, Japan (ARACO)

Body Style:  4-door station wagon

​​Layout:   Front-engine, four-wheel drive

Engine: 

  1. 3.9 L F I6 
  2. 4.2 L 2F I6  

1979 Toyota FJ55 Land Cruiser

References

  1. "Vehicle Heritage — Land Cruiser". TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION GLOBAL WEBSITE. Retrieved 2012-03-13.

  2. "Model BJ - Built From Good Materials - 1951-1955". Toyota Land Cruiser Data Library. Toyota. Retrieved 2013-06-23.

  3. "Worldwide Annual Production". Toyota Land Cruiser Data Library. Toyota. Retrieved 2013-06-23.

  4. http://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21581756-driving-right-type-car-most-widely-accepted-mark South Sudan: Vroom-vroom in the bush

  5. "Autoweb Australia". Autoweb.com.au. Retrieved 2010-10-30.

  6. "SPY PHOTOS: More New Toyota LandCruiser". Worldcarfans.com. 2007-02-13. Retrieved 2010-01-16.

  7. GoAutoMedia (2008-04-05). "Lexus LX LX570 5-dr wagon — First drive: LX570 is the lap of Lexus SUV luxury". GoAuto. Retrieved 2010-01-16.

  8. "Toyota 200 Series LandCruiser". Drive.com.au. 2008-01-11. Retrieved 2010-01-16.

  9. The Story of Land Cruiser. Tokyo: 4×4 Magazine Co. 1985.

  10. "The Long Run — Toyota: The first 40 years in Australia", Pedr Davis, South Hurstville: Type Forty Pty Ltd, 1999, ISBN 0-947079-99-8, p24.

  11. "Land Cruisers from Japan". The Age. September 20, 1957. p. 1.

  12. O'Kane, Tony (January 18, 2010). "2010 Toyota Landcruiser 76 Series GXL Wagon Road Test and Review". The Motor Report. Retrieved January 19, 2010.

  13. "Toyota Vehicle Identification Manual", Toyota Motor Corporation, Overseas Parts Department, Catalog No.97913-84, 1984, Japan

  14. "Land Cruiser — Model 55 Series". Toyota Motor Corporation Global Website. Retrieved 2012-03-14.

  15. Mastrostefano, Raffaele, ed. (1990). Quattroruote: Tutte le Auto del Mondo 1990 (in Italian). Milano: Editoriale Domus S.p.A. pp. 1340–1341.

  16. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toyota_Land_Cruiser

THE 80 SERIES. The Land Cruiser 80 series was introduced in late 1989. It had swing-out back doors, which were replaced by a winch door in 1994. The Land Cruiser was nicknamed the Burbuja (Bubble) in Colombia and Venezuela due to its roundness, but it was officially released as Land Cruiser Autana in both countries. The name is a reference to the Tepui mesa Autana, a spectacular plateau and cave system along the Guiana Shield craton. Land Cruiser sales reached 2 million vehicles. In 1990 the 80 series station wagon was introduced, replacing the 60 series. All 80s sold in North America and Europe now have a full-time four-wheel drive system. In Japan, Africa, and Australia, a part-time system was still available. 80s produced between 1990 and 1991 had an open centre differential which was lockable in 4HI and automatically locked in 4LO. From 1992 onward, vehicles with anti-lock brakes had a viscous coupling that sent a maximum of 30% torque to the non-slipping axle. The differential was lockable in 4HI and automatically locked in 4LO. That same year a new generation of diesel engines were introduced, adding to the engines available in the 80 series. The 80 series came with either a (3F-E) six-cylinder naturally aspirated petrol engine, a six-cylinder SOHC naturally aspirated diesel engine, (1HZ), or a 1HD-T direct injection turbo diesel. By mid-1991 the (3F-E) was introduced to the Australian market, a fuel injected version of the 3F. By 1993 an advanced 24-valve, 4.5 L six-cylinder petrol engine, 1FZ-FE was introduced. Larger brakes were added from October 1992 and the total wheelbase was made slightly longer. Front and rear axle lockers (code k294) appeared as an option. The High Pinion Electric Locking front differential become available in US models. In May 1993 Toyota began using R134 refrigerant in the air conditioning system. Serial numbers lower than JT3DJ81xxxxx38947 use R12 refrigerant. In 1994 a limited edition Land Cruiser Blue Marlin FZJ80R was introduced into the Australian market. They have 4.5 L straight 6 petrol motors with double-overhead cams, automatic or manual transmission and 158 kW (215 PS; 212 hp) at 4600 rpm. The car is blue from the Blue Marlin fish and they have the Blue Marlin logo throughout the car. Some of the features that the Blue Marlin included were altimeters, power windows, disk brakes, leather gear knob and steering wheel, central locking, leather trim, chrome handles and sidesteps, 16" alloy wheels, limited-slip differential, anti-lock brakes (ABS), power steering, CD and cassette players, flares, and a limited edition bull bar. Only 500 of these were made. In 1995 driver and passenger airbags were introduced as were adjustable shoulder-belt anchors and an anti-lock braking system. The "T O Y O T A" badge was replaced with the modern Toyota logo (which is sometimes described as a "bean with a hat" aka "the sombrero"). In the 1996 Dakar Rally, a pair of Land Cruisers finished first and second in the unmodified production class.  Also in 1996, all American and British 80s adopted anti-lock brakes and airbags as standard equipment. The Land Cruiser was withdrawn from Canada this year and was replaced by the Lexus LX 450. In 1997 a limited run of Land Cruiser 80s was built specifically for collectors and therefore called the Land Cruiser Collector's Edition. The Collectors Edition sported Collectors Edition badging, "Collector's Edition" embroidered floor mats, automatic climate control, wheels with the "D" windows painted dark grey and special grey side moldings, and black pearl badging. The Collectors Edition was only available for the 1997 model year and the package was added to many of the available body colors. In 1997  4744 FZJ80 Land Cruisers were sold in the United States as "40th Anniversary Limited Edition" models. They were available in 2 colors; Antique Sage Pearl (often referred to as Riverrock, Pewter, or Grey) and Emerald Green. The 40th Anniversary models included apron badges, a serial number badge on the centre console, black pearl exterior badges, "40th Anniversary Limited Edition" embroidered floor mats, automatic climate control, two-tone tan and brown leather interiors, and wheels with the "D" windows painted dark gray. Many were manufactured with the optional electric front and rear locking differentials, keyless entry, port-installed roof racks, and running boards. There are some examples that did not have many of these extras. This is the last year for the electric locking front differentials. In 2008 the last 80-Series vehicle was built in Venezuela which was the only country producing the vehicles after production ended in Japan in 1997.


BigSky Cruisers

Production:  1998–2007
​Assembly:  Toyota City, Japan (ARACO) 

Body Style:   4-door wagon

Engine:  

  1. 4.5 L 1FZ-FE I6
  2. 4.7 L 2UZ-FE V8
  3. 4.2 L 1HZ I6 diesel
  4. 4.2 L 1HD-T I6 turbo diesel
  5. 4.2 L 1HD-FTE I6 turbo diesel

Production:  1984–present
​Assembly:  Toyota City, Japan (ARACO) & Cumana, Venezuela

Body Style:   

  1. 2-door pickup truck

  2. 2-door softtop / hardtop / troopie

  3. 4-door van

​​Layout:   Front-engine, four-wheel drive

Engine:   

  1. 2.4 L 22R I4
  2. 4.0 L 3F I6
  3. 4.5 L 1FZ-FE I6
  4. 2.4 L 2L diesel I4
  5. 3.4 L PZ diesel I5
  6. 4.0 L 2H diesel I6
  7. 4.2 L 1HZ diesel I6
  8. 2.4 L 2L-Tturbodiesel I4
  9. 2.5 L VM HR588 TD I5 (Italy)
  10. 3.0 L 1KZ-T turbodiesel I4
  11. 3.4 L 13B-T turbodiesel I4
  12. 4.2 L 1HD-FTE turbodiesel I6
  13. 4.5 L 1VD-FTV turbodiesel V8